ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF SALMONELLA AND SHIGELLA, ISOLATED FROM DIARRHEAL CHILDREN UNDER FIVE YEARS OLD AT THE NATIONAL HOSPITAL OF NIAMEY (NIGER)
Maman Illa*, Bouli Ali Diallo, Ousmane Sani, Issaka Bassira, Ousmane Abdoulaye, Adehossi Eric
Background: Infectious diarrhea is a real public health problem for the general population, especially infants and the immunocompromised. The establishment of microbiological surveillance is more than necessary. Materials and Methods: Samples from Diarrheal stools were collected and analyzed by standard bacteriology technique (microscopy, gram and slide microscopy, culture / identification, and serogrouping). The sensitivity of the strains to antibiotics was determined by the antibiogram technique. Detection and characterization of resistance genes was done by gene amplification using specific primers. Results: During the period from March to December 2016, the stools of 2181 children with acute diarrhea were collected for bacteriological examination. A sample of 316 of the consulting population was studied to isolate bacteria belonging to salmonella and shigella. 28 stools or 63.7% contained Salmonella and 16 or 36.3% contained Shigella. The study of antibiotic sensitivity showed high resistance rates in both shigella and salmonella: 100% against cyclins, 87.5%, cotrimoxazole, 56.25% amoxicillin, 56.25% amoxicillin- clavulanic acid, 68.75% chloramphenicol. On the other hand, a total sensitivity to imipenem, amikacin, gentamicin, ceftriazone, cefotaxime and ofloxacin, was observed in shigella. For Salmonella, resistance rates of 71.43%, 64.29%, 57.14%, 53.57%, 50%, respectively to amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and to tetracycline, were detected. But sensitivity to amikacin, nalidixic acid and imipenem is 100%. The study of the genetic support of these resistances made it possible to detect the tet, qnrS, qnrB, blaTEM, blaOXA, blaSHV genes. Conclusion:the study of antibiotic sensitivity revealed the emergence of resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. The use of these molecules must therefore be done with caution in the treatment of shigellosis and salmonellosis.
Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance, Salmonella, Shigella, Niger.
[Full Text Article]