A REVIEW ON ORAL CONTRACEPTIVE
Rajalakshmi A. N.*, Padmapriya. S. and Manimegalai. K.
Oral contraceptive pills are a class of drugs which have been widely studied since 1960, and are used by more than 70 million women daily. In a national research conducted in the US on the contraceptive methods, it was concluded that the oral contraceptives had the highest rate of use, and using oral contraceptives was the first-grade selected method in 15-44-year-old women (18.9%). Oral contraceptives (birth control pills) are medications that are used to prevent pregnancy. Oral contraceptive, also called birth control pill, any of a class of synthetic steroid hormones that suppress the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland in the female body. FSH and LH normally stimulate the release of Estrogen from the ovaries, which in turn stimulates ovulation—the release of a mature egg from the female ovary. Oral contraceptives are hormonal preparations that may contain combinations of the hormones, Estrogen and progestin or progestin alone This combination inhibits ovulation, presumably by preventing release of follicle-stimulating hormone by Estrogen and luteinizing hormone by progesterone. Hormonal contraceptives may be divided into combined Estrogen-Progestogen contraceptives preparation available as pills, skin patches, vaginal rings which are monophasic, biphasic and triphasic. Progestogen-only contraceptives Preparation available as pills, injections, implants, hormone spirals which contain only one hormone, synthetic progestogen are called ‗minipill‘ and Emergency contraception pills also called as ―morning after pills‖. When oral contraceptives are used correctly, they are between 92 and 99 percent effective in preventing an unintended pregnancy. This review will enlightened various methods of oral contraceptives.
Keywords: Oral contraceptive pills, Estrogen, Progesterone.
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