IMPACT OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN CHRONIC DISEASES, THEIR BIOMARKERS, AND THE ROLE OF ANTIOXIDANTS
Pooja Agrawal, Virendra Kushwaha*, Ranju Kushwaha, Arka Das, Harsh Vekaria and Vipul Shukla
An imbalance of free radicals and antioxidants in the body leads to a condition called Oxidative Stress. Free radicals produced during the condition of oxidative stress trigger a reaction that can destroy the cell membrane, block the action of major enzymes, and prevent cellular processes necessary for proper functioning. Researchers believe that free radicals are also involved in some cellular signaling processes, known as redox signaling. Free radicals are of many types like -O2-, -OH, -ROO-, -NO, etc. Various diseased conditions like Atherosclerosis, Cancer, Alzheimer‟s, Asthma, Myocardial Infarction, and Arrhythmia can occur due to increased accumulation of free radicals. These diseased conditions can be identified by laboratory testing of their increased level of biomarkers in the body. Oxidative stress also plays an important role in the aging of our bodies. To protect from oxidative stressful conditions, Anti-oxidants are produced in our body which stabilize unstable free radicals. Examples of Anti-oxidants are Flavonols, Vit C, Vit E, Superoxide Dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase, etc. Antioxidant phytochemicals exist widely in fruits, vegetables, cereal grains, edible macrofungi, microalgae, and medicinal plants. The promising theoretical and research possibilities of antioxidant prevention and protection against various chronic illnesses are undergoing at present. Nanotechnology and other advanced technological drug delivery of antioxidants seem to have promising outcomes leading to increased therapeutic index and higher drug concentration in tumor tissues.
Keywords: Oxidative Stress, Biomarkers, Antioxidants.
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