( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , Scope Database , Academia , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 7.065

 ICV - 79.57



Adejumobi, O. A. and Olukole, S. G*


Chemical immobilization of six adult African sideneck turtles was carried out using varied doses of ketamine with the view of determining the effective and clinically tolerable dose of the drug in the animal that may be required in zoological medical practice. The turtles were divided into three groups of 2 animals each. Using the lateral aspect of the thigh muscle, intramuscular injections of ketamine were administered 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight for groups I, II and III, respectively. Stages of immobilization in the turtles were observed and categorized into five stages: I- Partial extension of the head with retraction when touched; II- partial relaxation of the limbs; III- full relaxation of the head and limbs with partial extension of the tail; IV- full extension of the head, limbs and tail with no retraction when touched; and V- complete recovery from anaesthesia (complete regain of routine activities by the turtle). There were no significant differences (P< 0.05) in the time taken for the turtles to attain to all the stages across the groups. Full recovery from anaesthesia took place 80, 126 and 243 minutes after immobilization for groups I, II and III, respectively. Intramuscular injection of ketamine at 12.5 mg/kg body weight is therefore recommended in chemical immobilization of the African sideneck turtle for routine blood collection and other biometrical and clinical observations. Also, ketamine-induced immobilization at doses higher than 12.5 mg/kg body weight should be avoided in the animal because of the prolonged duration of anaesthesia observed in the study. The information made available by this study is expected to be useful in zoological medical practice.

Keywords: Ketamine, immobilization, turtle, intramuscular, African sideneck turtle.

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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) Scope Database Academia