AN OVERVIEW OF THE CONCEPT OF ANTIBODY-DEPENDENT ENHANCEMENT (ADE), AS ADVERSE EFFECTS OF ANTIBODIES, PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND MECHANISM OF SARS-COV-2 IMPLICATION FOR COVID-19 PANDEMIC OUTBREAK
Andrew Nyuyki Banin, Estella Achick Tembe-Fokunang, Marceline Djuidje Ngounoue, Joseph Fokam, Vanessa Edwige Tchadji Mayoudom, Dobgima John Fonmboh, Kristen Nubia Kaba, Lovet Benyella Fokunang, Ben Enoluomen Ehiagiator, Zelinjo N. Igweze, Sarah Tishkoff, Ralf Duerr, Marie Therese Abena Obama Ondoua and Charles Ntungwen Fokunang*
The severe adverse respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are recognized zoonotic viruses at a global pandemic scale that strongly considered to be a public health challenge. The Coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) has called for a global mobilization strategy towards the discovery and development of antiviral bioactive agents that are aligned with the viral architectures, biological and immunological properties, a multitude high throughput (HTP) test batteries and potential clinical outcomes. The COVID-19 from its architectural appearance is an enveloped virus, positive-stranded RNA, the envelope spikes mediating cellular entry. The entry process is made of a downstream biological and immunological pathway, with clinical outcomes. The virus-specific antibodies play a very important role in the control of viral pathogenesis. Based on certain circumstances, the presence of virus-specific antibodies can potentially produce different unexpected outcome that produces beneficial effects for the virus. A known example of the harmful activity of the virus-specific antibodies is the antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of virus infection. ADE of virus pathogenesis is a concept by which the virus-specific antibodies controls the ingress of the virus into cells through interaction of the crystallizable fragments (Fc) section of the antibodies with complement receptors, and with other cellular receptors. ADE of viral infection has been described in vitro in serum samples using a viral infection of susceptible cells that has undergone modification by the addition of virus-reactive antibodies. ADE has been associated to a serious and fatal viral effect that occurs in animals and humans. ADE has been linked to the dengue shock syndrome, which is known as the early death syndrome/phenomenon in laboratory experimental infections of immune animals, and in modified immunoglobulin conditions. Some serious health concerns have been raised for ADE with respect to the discovery and development of vaccines against viruses like the COVID-19 and HIV. This phenomenon has been tested in vitro and in vivo for many families and genera of viruses that are of public health and veterinary interest. Those viruses share sequence homology, selective replication in macrophages, show a high ability for developing and establishment of resistance, and antigenic diversity. The development of vaccines for COVID-19 has made much progress since the onset of SARS COV2 pandemic, despite the major research challenges. This paper attempts to give an insight into the importance of ADE as a risk of antibody, the different strategies used in the development of vaccines to minimize the risk. The identification approach of viral pathotypes linked with ADE, and the neutralization necessary for viral pathogenesis research. Finally, we attempt to deal with an understanding of the pathophysiology, mechanism of cellular events after the ingress of the virus and the how the effect of ADE is important for the discovery and developing of effective clinical intervention and therapeutic effects.
Keywords: Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), SARS CoV-2, COVID 19, HIV, vaccines, pathophysiology, pandemic, drug discovery, Zoonotic viruses.
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