MOLECULAR INSIGHTS INTO HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA WITH BIOMARKER IDENTIFICATION: FROM BIRTH TO TREATMENT
Tanveer Ahmed Khan*, Baseer Ahmed Khan and Lubna Shakir
Hepatocellular carcinoma is a complex cancer and it is usually diagnosed at advanced stage with several genomic alterations. There are several genomic pathways responsible in tumor development. These include Endothelial and Fibroblast Growth Factor-β Pathways, JAK/STAT Pathway, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway, p53 Pathway, pRb Pathway, Stress Response Signaling and Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway. Biomarker identification is an important tool for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Several approaches were tested to treat hepatocellular carcinoma but the drug sorafenib showed life improvement benefits. However, to overcome the genetic abnormalities in hepatocellular carcinoma, several molecular target therapies were applied. These target therapies are Anti-EGFR Agents, Inhibitors of angiogenesis, PI3K/Akt/mTOR Inhibitors and others. Future research is required to identify innovative compounds and new therapeutic strategies to treat and cure hepatocellular carcinoma.
Keywords: Cancer, Gene, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Tumor,
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