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An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , Scope Database , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 6.222

 ICV - 79.57



Augustina Akum Okoro*, Smart Enoch Amala and Easter Godwin Nwokah


Food handlers have been incriminated in the transmission of food borne diseases, contributing significantly to the global incidence and burden of diseases. This study investigated enterotoxin production and antimicrobial resistance of Staphyloccocus aureus among food handlers in a sub-urban setting in Rivers State, Nigeria. A total of 360 hand and nasal swab samples were collected from food handlers in Eleme (n=180) and Oyigbo (n=180) local government areas using a simple random sampling technique. Organisms were isolated using standard microbiological techniques. Prolex™ Staph Xtra Latex kit was used for confirmation of enterotoxin production, while Cefoxitin discs (30 μg) was used for methicillin resistance screening. Disk diffusion method was used to test susceptibility patterns of Staphylococcus aureus against panel of antimicrobial agents. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 21 for prevalence, frequency, chi square and correlation tested at 0.05 level of significance. The prevalence of S. aureus obtained from this study was 28.1%, out of which Enterotoxin-Producing Staphylococcus aureus was 37.6%. The prevalence of S. aureus among street food handlers was higher in Oyigbo (34.4%) compared to Eleme (21.7%), while enterotoxin producers occurred at a higher rate (43.6%) in Eleme than in Oyigbo (33.9%). Toxin production and socio-demographic variables of location, sex and education were significantly associated (p<0.05), whereas age showed no significant association (p>0.05) with enterotoxin production. Correlation analysis for education showed an indirect association with enterotoxin production (0.000); whereas others demonstrated direct association except age (p=0.088). S. aureus isolates showed maximum resistance to penicillin antibiotic (92.1%) and the highest susceptibility to vancomycin (96.0%). Also, 21.8% of the isolates was resistant to cefoxitin (Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus), whereas 78.1% was sensitive (MSSA). The present study considered prevalence rates of S. aureus, enterotoxin producing S. aureus, MRSA and multidrug resistant which have empirically proven high rate of occurrences among food handlers within the study locations. The public health implications of these findings and appropriate response cannot be overemphasized.

Keywords: Enterotoxin, Antimicrobial Resistance, S. aureus, Food Handlers.

[Full Text Article]



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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) Scope Database