( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 6.222

 ICV - 79.57



*Azikiwe C. C. A., Nwozor C. M. and Ifezulike C. C.


Snakebite and envenomation are silent public health issues and constitutes a major public health challenge in many parts of the world. According to World Health Organization (WHO), 4.5-5.4 million people a year are bitten by snakes, 1.8-2.7 million of them develop clinical illness (envenomation) after snakebite, and death toll could range from 81,000 to 138,000. Four families of venomous snakes are found in Nigeria. They are Viperidae, Elapidae, Colubridae, and Actraspididae. Previous works and research findings on this subject were accessed through Google Search, PubMed, and Wikipedia websites. In addition standard textbooks on Pharmacology were consulted. All these sources provided necessary information for this review. There are different categories of snake venom. They are cytotoxins, hemorrhagins, anti-clotting agents, myotoxins, and neurotoxins. Signs and symptoms of snakebite vary according to the species responsible for the bite, size, age, and the amount of venom injected. A venomous snakebite usually leaves two clear puncture marks. Some of the symptoms are: vomiting, nausea, dizziness, weakness, prostration, bleeding, shock, hypotension, myalgia, stiffness, dark-colored urine, and paralysis. The mainstay of treatment is the use of antivenom (monovalent or polyvalent). Other treatment options involve antitetanus toxin administration, analgesics, and antibiotics. While adults are more occupationally exposed to more bites/envenomation, children are more at risk of death due to hypovolaemia, shock, paralysis and other effects of endotoxins.

Keywords: Snakebite, Antivenom, Adults, Children, Envenomation. Toxicity.

[Full Text Article]



  • New Issue Published

    Its Our pleasure to inform you that, EJPMR 1 January 2022 Issue has been Published, Kindly check it on


    JANUARY Issue has been successfully launched on 1 January 2022.

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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI )