( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , Scope Database , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 6.222

 ICV - 79.57



Dr. Ketki Jandial*


Background: Shivering tends to increase expenditure of cardiac and systemic energy, and interferes with pulse rate, blood pressure (BP) and electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring. It also interferes with haemodynamic monitoring intraoperatively. Shivering per se may aggravate post-operative pain, simply by stretching of surgical incision. Therefore, the present study was done to assess the efficacy of ketamine, clonidine and tramadol when used prophylactically to control shivering under neuraxial blockade. Methods: A double blind randomized clinical trial study was performed in the Department of Anesthesia, GMC Jammu, on 144 patients of ASA grade 1 and 2, belonging to either gender or age between 18 to 65 years, after taking written- informed consent. Patients, undergoing lower abdominal or lower limb surgery were included in the study. Results: Ketamine had significant role in sedation degrees as compared to other groups and maintained cardio-respiratory stability and prevented recall of un-pleasant events in the surgery. There was a greater fall in core body temperatures in the placebo group as compared with the ketamine, tramadol and clonidine groups in our study. The incidence of shivering was 23/32 (71.8%) in the placebo group. Conclusion: Ketamine 0.5 mg/kg, clonidine 75 mcg or tramadol 0.5 mg/kg i.v. prophylactically just before neuraxial blockade significantly decreased the incidence of shivering without causing any major side-effects. Using ketamine may be more beneficial as it improves the hemodynamic profile and sedates the patient effectively, which increases patient comfort during surgery, maintains cardiorespiratory stability and prevents recall of unpleasant events during the surgery.

Keywords: Shivering, Ketamine, Clonidine, Tramadol, Neuraxial Blockade.

[Full Text Article]



  • New Issue Published

    Its Our pleasure to inform you that, EJPMR 1 September 2023 Issue has been Published, Kindly check it on


    SEPTEMBER issue has been successfully launched on 1 SEPTEMBER 2023.

  • EJPMR New Impact Factor

    Its our Pleasure to Inform you that EJPMR Impact Factor has been increased from  5.804 to 6.222, due to high quality Publication at International Level

  • Index Copernicus Value

    EJPMR Received Index Copernicus Value 79.57, due to High Quality Publication in EJPMR at International Level

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  • Article Invited for Publication

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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) Scope Database