( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , Scope Database , Academia , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 7.065

 ICV - 79.57



*Saba Farheen, Nirosha M. K., Aleena F. Kunnel, Dr. Rosy Raju, Dr. Murali Krishna, Dr. Hanumanthachar Joshi


Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) consists of an array of dysfunctions characterized by hyperglycemia and resulting from the combination of resistance to insulin action, inadequate insulin secretion, and excessive glucagon secretion. T2DM is associated with reduced performances in numerous cognitive domains and evidence of abnormal brain structure and function. Whereas the relationship between type 2 diabetes and depression is bidirectional. Depression disturbs emotion, cognition and behaviors. Objectives: To assess cognitive function and depression with oral hypoglycemic drugs versus insulin in patients with T2DM. To assess highly related co-morbidities associated with T2DM. To assess the gender highly affected from depression and cognitive deficits withT2DM. Methods: A prospective cross sectional study was carried out, with a time period of 6 months. We reviewed all participants in multiple study sites meeting the study criteria were enrolled in the study. All relevant data of the enrolled participants was collected from various data sources and questionnaires and were documented. Results: In our study we quantified 120 diabetic (case) and 120 non diabetic (control) and out of 120 cases 60 were on insulin and rest 60 were on Oral Hypoglycemic Drugs (OH). We observed that among 120 T2DM patient’s men (N=53) had severe cognitive decline than women (N=27). Most cognitive deficits were observed india beticpatientsaged63-77(48.8%). Of 120 control, 86.3%(N=104) had normal cognition and only 13.3%(N=16) had cognitive disability. Diabetic patients have lower global cognition score than non- diabetic patients (p= 0.003). Depression was seen in T2DM (14.335) patients than non-diabetic patients (4.191) (p=0.001). Among 120 control participant’s majority had minimal depression (53.3%) to mild depression (24. 1%).Depression was seen more among insulin users (16.88) than OH users (11.81) (p=0.002). Severe depression in insulin users (35%) was seen more than OH users (2.5%). Conclusion: T2DM participant’s remains undiagnosed for cognitive decline and depression during their lifetime. Higher prevalence of cognitive decline in T2DM is alarming and the findings of present study indicate that each diabetic patient should be evaluated for cognition, so that potential squeal of T2DM i.e. neuro-degeneration and dementia can be effectively controlled and addressed.

Keywords: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Hyperglycemia, Cognition, Depression, Neuro- degeneration, Oral Hypoglycemic Drugs.

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  • New Issue Published

    Its Our pleasure to inform you that, EJPMR 1 July 2024 Issue has been Published, Kindly check it on


    JULY 2024 issue has been successfully launched on JULY 2024.

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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) Scope Database Academia