DISSOCIATIVE IDENTITY DISORDER: A NARRATIVE REVIEW
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) by various criteria, which include disruption of identity, amnesia, and loss of sense of self and agency. It causes significant distress and impairment, which is not attributable to substance abuse or another medical condition. The reported prevalence of DID varies, largely due to cultural differences and various issues with receiving an accurate diagnosis, such as clinician bias and lack of definitive diagnostic tools and guidelines. The disorder has been strongly linked to a history of trauma and distinct neurobiological changes have been observed in patients with DID. The goal of treatment varies based on patient severity. Treatment generally consists of phasic cognitive behavioral therapy, supported by alternatives such as pharmacological interventions, hypnosis and electroconvulsive shock therapy. Most patients demonstrate improvements due to therapy, with associated decreased economic burden. DID remains a controversial diagnosis, with many doubts surrounding it‘s validity. The purpose of this review is to increase awareness regarding this disorder. Even though it is an established disorder, there is a distinct lack of official guidelines for its treatment and clinicians are often unaware of it. The aim of this review is to compile all existing relevant information regarding the disorder, which may in turn prompt further research regarding the same.
Keywords: dissociative identity disorder, etiology, treatment, validity, cultural differences.
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