GENOTOXIC EFFECT OF ARSENIC ON CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE OF MICE
Ranjit Kumar*, Vibha Gahlot, Md Ali, Seemab Akhtar and Arun Kumar
Arsenic toxicity has become a global public health concern and has affected human health adversely in many different ways. Exposure to inorganic arsenic occurs via environmental and occupational exposures. The people residing in arsenic hit area were prone to different types of disease including skin disease, reproductive disease and cancer. Children of these areas have symptoms of severe arsenicosis and low memory status. The present study is designed to study the genotoxic effects of arsenic on chromosome structure of Swiss albino mice. The control group of 6 mice received distilled water as drinking water. The ‘treatment’ group received sodium arsenate 6 mg/kg body weight /day by Gavage method for 16 weeks. Mice were sacrificed and bone marrow was removed for chromosomal study. At twelve weeks administration of arsenic elongation of chromosomal arm, decrease in size of centromeres and Increase in thickness of chromosomal arm were observed. Elongated thin arm of chromosomes were observed. Less dense telomeres were also observed. At sixteen weeks administration of arsenic, serrated outer surface of chromosomes were observed. Centromeres were not distinct with clustered chromatid and fragmented arms of sub metacentric chromosomes were observed. It is concluded from the study that long term arsenic exposure causes chromosomal anomalies through heterogenous structure, elongation and finally fragmentation of chromosomes. The study on Swiss albino mice with arsenic did confirm the genotoxic effect of arsenic through chromosomal assay.
Keywords: Centromere; Telomere; Metacentric; Heterogenous; Arsenicosis.
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