EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF
PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH

( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 6.222

 ICV - 79.57

Abstract

AGE RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION-A REVIEW ON ITS PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT

Milka K. Joy* and Rushda C. N.

ABSTRACT

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of legal blindness in the industrialized world. AMD is characterized by accumulation of extracellular deposits, namely drusen, along with progressive degeneration of photoreceptors and adjacent tissues. AMD is a multifactorial disease encompassing a complex interplay between ageing, environmental risk factors and genetic susceptibility. Chronic inflammation, lipid deposition, oxidative stress and impaired extracellular matrix maintenance are strongly implicated in AMD pathogenesis. However, the exact interactions of pathophysiological events that culminate in drusen formation and the associated degeneration processes remain to be elucidated. Despite tremendous advances in clinical care and in unravelling pathophysiological mechanisms, the unmet medical need related to AMD remains substantial. Although there have been major breakthroughs in the treatment of exudative AMD, no efficacious treatment is yet available to prevent progressive irreversible photoreceptor degeneration, which leads to central vision loss. Compelling progress in high-resolution retinal imaging has enabled refined phenotyping of AMD in vivo. These insights, in combination with clinicopathological and genetic correlations, have underscored the heterogeneity of AMD. Hence, our current understanding promotes the view that AMD represents a disease spectrum comprising distinct phenotypes with different mechanisms of pathogenesis. Hence, tailoring therapeutics to specific phenotypes and stages may, in the future, be the key to preventing irreversible vision loss.

Keywords: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), Pathophysiology, Management, Anti-VEGF therapy.


[Full Text Article]

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  • New Issue Published

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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI )