COVID-19 DURING FIRST AND SECOND WAVE IN INDIA: AN ANALYSIS
*Sanjay Kumar Narang and Kiran Chauhan
SARS-CoV-2 is an etiological agent of COVID-19, causing mild to severe respiratory disease which escalates to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or multi-organ failure. The virus was first reported from the animal market in Hunan, Hubei province of China in the month of December, 2019, and was rapidly transmitted from animal to human and humanto- human. Many countries including India have seen a two-wave pattern in reported cases of coronavirus disease-19 during the2020 pandemic, with a first wave during Oct-Nov. 2020 followed by the current second wave in April-May2021. The virus primarily targets the upper and the lower respiratory tract and quickly disseminates to other organs. SARS-CoV-2 dysregulates immune signaling pathways which generate cytokine storm and leads to the acute respiratory distress syndrome and other multisystemic disorders. In the present review an attempt has been made to comparatively analyses the first and second wave in India. Patients in the second wave were more younger and children than those in the first wave. The most frequent signs and symptoms in both waves were fever, dyspnea, pneumonia, and cough, and the most relevant comorbidities were cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and chronic neurological diseases.
Keywords: Coronaviruses, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Spike glycoprotein.
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