A SNP BARCODE TO INFORM GENETIC VARIATION AND EVOLUTION PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM MALARIA IN MALI
Abdoulaye Diawara*, Aoua Coulibaly, Cheickna Cisse, Mamadou Wele, Jeffrey Shaffer, Seydou Doumbia, Talib Yusuf Abbas and Mahamadou Diakite
Background: Despite of considerable advances in malaria control strategies, malaria continues to kill countless numbers of kids, mainly in sub-Saharan African countries. Mali is listed among the ten countries most suffering from malaria within the world in keeping with the quantity of cases and deaths... Plasmodium falciparum parasite is related to the foremost severe cases of malaria, especially in children. Malaria reports increasingly state drug resistance with severe cases, so investigating the genetic diversity and evolutionary history of Plasmodium falciparum are going to be crucial to understanding the evolution and variation of malarial drug resistance, and within the explore for potential vaccines. During this study, 186 samples were obtained from two sites in Mali: Koila Bamana in near of the town of Ségou and Nioro-du-Sahel situated within the Sahelian region. Methods: The 27-SNP barcode assay and phylogenetic tree (maximum likelihood method) were generated to research the variety and evolutionary relationship of the Plasmodium falciparum parasite population of 80 isolates in two varying patterns of malaria transmission in Mali. Excluding barcode sequences containing over four (4) missing SNPs, Minor allele frequencies (MAF), Genetic differentiation (GST= Genetic statistic), Average Minor allele frequencies (AMAF), the principal component analysis (PCA) were determined. Results: Fifty-seven of 80 isolates (71.3%) provided sufficient data quality for meeting the inclusion criteria of barcode. The parasite populations displayed a high degree of intra-population genetic diversity (MAF >1), the inter-population diversity was relatively low (AMAF = 0.34 and = 0.28 for Koila Bambara and Nioro du Sahel respectively) consort with barcode π value respectively 0.43 and 0.44 for Koila Bambara and Nioro. The populations failed to differ with relevance genetic diversity (GST=0.03). In both populations, the PCA sustained the genetic similarities of P. falciparum. Analysis of the phylogenetic tree revealed several groups of P. falciparum genetically close, which could have originated from Nioro du Sahel. Conclusions: The genetic diversity of P.falciparum populations is a major is a major consider in the parasite's ability to adapt to changes in its environment thus the measures observed here for Koila Bambara and Nioro du Sahel may partially explain the rising drug-resistance and growing severe cases in those regions in Mali.
Keywords: SNP, Barcode, Evolution Malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, genetic diversity, Mali.
[Full Text Article]