A REVIEW: CONTROL OF DIABETES MELLITUS COMPLICATIONS
Abdul Wahid Ishaque*, Nishant Khatiwada and Kumar Khatiwada
Diabetes complications are wide ranging and due at least in part to chronic elevation of blood glucose levels, which leads to damage of blood vessels. According to international Diabetes Federation, about 415 million people are suffering from diabetes worldwide. This number is expected to exceed 640 million by the year 2040. The complications that are specific to diabetes include retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. Patients with all forms of diabetes of sufficient duration, including insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), are vulnerable to these complications, which cause serious morbidity. Adults with diabetes have an annual mortality of about 5.4% (double the rate for non-diabetic adults), and their life expectancy is decreased on average by 5-10 years. Although the increased death rate is mainly due to cardiovascular disease, deaths from non-cardiovascular causes are also increased. Cost of treatment has also been a burden on the patient living with diabetes and also for counties especially the developing ones. In conclusion, ensuring that blood glucose concentration is normal, regular checkup and cessation smoking can help control diabetes complications.
Keywords: Hyperglycemia, Smoking, Glucose, Atherosclerosis.
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