PARKINSON’S DISEASE- A REVIEW
Sandeep Prakash*, Rohit Mohan, Gulab Chandra, Pritt Verma and O. P. Verma
It is the foremost common neurodegenerative disease within the elderly person, with a better prevalence in men, independent of race and social class; it affects approximately 1.5 to 2.0% of the elderly population over 60 years and 4% for those over 80 years age. Parkinson’s disease is caused by the necrosis of dopaminergic neurons within the Substantia Niger, which is that the brain region liable for the synthesis of the neurotransmitter dopamine, leading to its decrease in the synaptic cleft. The MAO-B (monoamine oxidase B) degrades dopamine, promoting the glutamate accumulation and oxidative stress with the discharge of free radicals, causing excitotoxicity. The Parkinson’s symptoms are progressive physical limitations like rigidity, bradykinesia, tremor, postural instability and disability in functional performance. Considering that there are not any laboratory tests, biomarkers or imaging studies to verify the disease, the diagnosis of Parkinson’s is formed by analyzing the motor features. Due to the importance and increasing prevalence of Parkinson’s within the world, this study reviews information on the pathophysiology, symptomatology also because the most current and relevant treatments of Parkinson’s patients.
Keywords: Parkinson's disease, neuronal degeneration, dopamine, dopaminergic agonists, pharmacological treatment, pathophysiology, symptomatology.
[Full Text Article]