A REVIEW ON DOMINATING DIABETIC COMPLICATIONS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT
M. Dheepthi*, S. U. Mohamed Afreeth, S. Suba Dhanisha and C. Sowmya
Diabetes, the most common global burden affecting people of all age groups. It is a chronic metabolic disorder, results in elevated levels of blood glucose. This could be due to beta cell destruction/dysfunction. Diabetes results in variety of Complications, among them, the micro and macro vascular complications are more predominant. The incidence of diabetes complications varies with genetic factors, environment, gender and race. Diabetic retinopathy is associated with loss of pericytes and it is classified as non-proliferative and proliferative types. Diabetic neuropathy is the inflammation of neurons causing burning and tingling sensation especially in arms and feet. Diabetic nephropathy refers to the damage of nephrons due to hyperglycemic condition which progress to end stage renal failure where GFR is reduced to less than 15ml/min. Microalbuminurea is the hallmark of nephropathy. Nephropathy and hypertension are correlated in diabetic individual by altered Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system mechanism. Oxidative stress pays the way for endothelial dysfunction which further worsens the condition by resulting in insulin resistance. The insulin resistance cause perivascular fibrosis which is characterized by ventricle hypertrophy leading to cardiomyopathy. Plaque deposit trigger the incidence of heart failure and one among the risk factor for development of stroke. Occurrence of stroke is predominant due to inflammation of cerebral blood vessels. Antioxidants play a vital role in prevention of severity of complications. There is no cure for diabetes hence, proper adherence, life style modifications and regular screening help in eliminating the risk of mortality due to complications.
Keywords: Complication, Diabetes, Endothelial dysfunction, Macrovascular, Microvascular, Oxidative stress.
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