BONE MINERAL DENSITY, VEGETARIANISM, VITAMIN D, CALCIUM, AND ADIPOKINES: A CROSS-SECTIONAL INVESTIGATION
Anna-Liisa Tamm*, Jaak Jürimäe, Aivar Orav, Evelin Mäestu, Petra Marion Vesterinen, Ülle Parm
Background and Objectives: Osteoporosis has widely been diagnosed and one reason could be the elimination of meat products from the diet. The aim of the study was to assess the possible impact of vegetarian diet to aBMD among Estonian vegetarians, considering other influencing factors such as age, gender, physical activity, adipokines, vitamin-D, calcium, body composition, smoking and alcohol consumption. Materials and Methods: Participants completed demographics and personal behaviour questionnaire. Whole body and regional aBMD was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In addition, calcium, vitamin D, leptin, and adiponectin were measured from the fasting blood samples. Results: Altogether 68 adult vegetarians (V; ♂: n=17; 20-48y; ♀: n=51; 20-53y); and 103 omnivores (O; ♂: n=22; 20-54y; ♀: n=81; 18-53y) were examined. V had significantly lower lumbar spine (L1L4; p=0.045) and femoral neck (FN; p=0.019) aBMD values in comparison with O group. Age and gender had an effect on BMD; FNBMD: V vs O coef-.045; p=0.028, female vs male coef-.08; p<0.001; whole body BMD: female vs male coef-.094, p<0.001; older vs younger coef.002, p=0.004; L1L4BMD older vs younger coef.002; p=0.038. Calcium levels were mostly in recommended level (2.02-2.60 mmol/l) in both groups, but significantly higher in O when compared with V (p=0.026). In addition, 43.5% of V and 35.1% of O had vitamin D level below the recommended level. Leptin levels were higher in omnivores (p=0.025) and adipokines playd important role for aBMD. Conclusions: V have lower FN aBMD, although vegetarianism was found to have a positive effect on calcium concentration.
Keywords: Bone mineral density; vegetarian diet; vitamin D; calcium; physical activity; leptin; adiponectin.
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