IMPACT OF INCREASED BMI ON CARDIAC STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN ADOLESCENTS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY
Mohammed Nazrul Islam*, Sayeeda Anjum, Mohd Rasheeduddin Imran*, R. Sunandini and Shaik Karimulla
Introduction: Obesity and overweight are the non-communicable epidemic in developed and developing countries and have grown in recent decades. Adolescent obesity is associated with a wide range of serious health complications and an increased risk of cardiovascular and other illnesses and death later in life. Objective: To study the impact of increased BMI on cardiac function in adolescents using 2D echocardiography. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 90 adolescents with matched sex and age -14(2) years were divided into three groups- 1) Normal weight (NW), 2) Overweight (OW) and 3) Obese (OB) based on the BMI (body mass index) percentile for age and sex. The subjects underwent anthropometric measurements to determine the BMI and record of blood pressure, heart rate, and 2D Echocardiography. The comparison of physical and cardiovascular parameters between the groups were done by Mann Whitney U test for the non-parametric data and student t-test for the parametric data. Statistical significance was considered to be p≤0.05. Results: The cardiovascular parameters including the pulse rate were statistically significant between NW Vs OW and NW Vs OB groups (NW Vs OW: p<0.001; and NW Vs OB: p<0.001), SBP (NW Vs OW: p=0.003; and NW Vs OB: p<0.001) and DBP (NW Vs OW: p<0.001; and NW Vs OB: p<0.001). The 2D echo recorded cardiac parameters including the LA diameter (NW Vs OW: p<0.001 and NW Vs OB: p<0.001), LV end diastolic diameter (NW Vs OW: p=0.01; and NW Vs OB: p=0.001), LV ejection fraction (NW Vs OW: p=0.03; and NW Vs OB: p=0.001) were statistically significant between NW Vs OW and NW Vs OB groups. Aortic diameter (NW Vs OB: p=0.002) was significant between normal weight and obese subjects only. LV end systolic diameter and fractional shortening were statistically insignificant between NW Vs OW and NW Vs OB groups. Conclusion: This scientific study has found a positive correlation between increased BMI and cardiac changes and recommends screening of overweight and obese children to identify and plan the preventive measures for the cardiovascular risk factors at an early stage.
Keywords: Adolescent obesity, BMI, cardiac parameter, echocardiography.
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