INCIDENCE AND RISK FACTORS PREDISPOSING TO RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY AND TREATMENT OUTCOME: A RETROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY
Mittal Deepak, Sidana Poonam, Jain Mayank*, Gupta Aparna and Mehta A.P.
Purpose: Retinopathy of prematurity is a disorder of the developing retina. The survival rate of preterm infants increased due to advance neonatal care, with a consequent increase in retinopathy of prematurity cases. The aim was to assess the incidence of ROP and its risk factors and outcome for those who needed treatment. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of the preterm infants born in a tertiary intensive care unit was conducted from January 2017 to October 2020. A total of two hundred three newborns included for this study based on the following criteria, Gestational age (GA) at the time of birth of ≤35 weeks, birth Weight of ≤2000 gm, and babies with GA>35 weeks and BW >2000 if the treating Paediatrician recommended ROP screening due to stormy course in NICU. Data were review to determine the incidence and risk factors of ROP. Neonates were followed up until disease resolution or until treatment criteria were achieved. Results: A total of two hundred three babies enrolled in this study. There were 126 (62.1%) males and 77 (37.9%) females. ROP seen in 41 babies and giving an incidence of 20.2%. About half of cases had stage 1 ROP (51.2%) followed by stage 2 (24.4%), APROP (22%) and stage 3 (2.4%). No case of stage 4 and stage 5 ROP were detected. 7 out of 41 ROP cases were type-1 disease with the incidence of 3.4% and received treatment. A significant association noted between ROP and PDA, sepsis, PVL, BPD, RDS, Postnatal steroids, oxygen therapy blood transfusion, TPN (P <0.05). No significant association was found for PIH, Preeclampsia, GDM, receiving antenatal steroids, IVH, multiple gestations, SGA, NEC, invasive and non-invasive respiratory support need. Conclusion: This study found the incidence of any stage of ROP was 20.2%, and the incidence of type-1 disease was 3.4%. A significant association noted between ROP and PDA, sepsis, PVL, BPD, RDS, Postnatal steroids, oxygen therapy blood transfusion, TPN.
Keywords: Retinopathy of prematurity, Risk factors, Type 1 ROP disease, Incidence.
[Full Text Article]