EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF
PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH

( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 6.222

 ICV - 79.57

Abstract

CAFFEINE, BREAKFAST CEREAL AND TIME OF DAY: EFFECTS ON ALERTNESS, ENCODING AND RECALL

Andrew P. Smith PhD*

ABSTRACT

Background: There is considerable literature on the effects of caffeine on cognition and alertness. However, there is no consensus on sensitive measures that can be used as positive controls in the studies of the effects of other changes in state. The present study examined whether encoding of new information and ratings of alertness after a cognitive test battery are indicators which demonstrate the effects of caffeine in different contexts. The changes in state investigated here were those observed after consumption of breakfast cereal. Previous research has identified sensitive tests, namely free recall of a list of words and pre-test alertness, that are reliably observed when breakfast cereal is consumed in the early morning. Methods: The present research examined contextual factors that may be important in these breakfast effects. The first study examined the effects of breakfast at lunchtime and the second examined the possible role of sleep inertia by studying night workers who had a sleep in the day and then had breakfast before starting their shift. Results: The results showed that caffeine led to faster encoding of information in both studies and also increased alertness after the performance tests. In contrast, there were no effects of consumption of breakfast cereal on the free recall task, although alertness before the test battery was increased following the consumption of cereal in both studies. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that caffeine can be used as a positive control when the sensitive tasks used in this study are included. The effects of breakfast cereal on memory observed in the early morning are not due to consuming breakfast per se nor to sleep inertia. Further research involving a longer fasting period is now needed to determine whether this is the crucial factor leading to cereal improving recall. The effect of cereal on pre-test alertness shows that there are reliable effects which may be due to eating per se rather than post-digestive changes in state.

Keywords: Caffeine; Breakfast Cereal; Encoding; Alertness; Free recall.


[Full Text Article]

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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing