EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF
PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH

( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

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Abstract

EFFECTS OF XYLOPIA AETHIOPICA EXTRACT AND MELATONIN ON PLATELETS AND COAGULATION PROFILE OF CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE INTOXICATED WISTAR RATS

Udokwu Euphemia Ifeoma, Okoroiwu I. L., Okolie N. J. C. Anonde Andrew Chekwube and Obeagu Emmanuel Ifeanyi*

ABSTRACT

The study was done to evaluate the effects of Xylopia aethiopica and melatonin on platelets and coagulation profile in cyclophosphamide intoxicated adult wistar rats. Pods of Xylopia aethiopica were purchased from Orie-Ugba vegetable market, Umuahia North Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria. One hundred and ninety five matured wistar albino rats were used for the studies. Results were expressed as means ± standard error of mean (SEM). Statistical analysis was done using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant differences were assessed at 95% level of significance between control and treated groups using Duncan and LSD (Post Hoc) tests. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Computer software package, SPSS version 21 was employed. In week one, and two, there was significant decrease in platelet in all the treatment groups compared with control except week three. Platelet varied significantly from week one to three in all the treatment groups except group 2 and 13. The results showed in week one and two, there was a dose dependent decrease in platelet count of rats treated with 10, 30 and 50 mg/kg of Cyclophosphamide. Treatment with 400mg Xylopia aethiopica alone and 400mg Xylopia aethiopica and 0.5mg Melatonin significantly increased the platelet count of rats exposed to 10mg Cyclophosphamide. Platelet count of rats treated with 400 mg Xylopia aethiopica and 0.5mg Melatonin was significantly higher than 400mg Xylopia aethiopica alone. Similarly, treatment with 400mg Xylopia aethiopica alone and 400mg Xylopia aethiopica and 0.5mg Melatonin significantly increased the platelet of rats exposed to 30mg Cyclophosphamide. Platelet count of rats treated with 400mg Xylopia aethiopica and 0.5mg Melatonin was significantly higher than 400mg Xylopia aethiopica alone. Treatment with 400mg Xylopia aethiopica and 0.5mg Melatonin significantly increased the platelet of rats exposed to 50mg Cyclophosphamide. In week three, treatment with 400mg Xylopia aethiopica and 0.5 mg Melatonin alone and in combination did not significantly increase the platelet of rats exposed to 10mg Cyclophosphamide. In week one and two and three, there was significant increase in average PT in all the treatment groups compared with control except group 1 and 3 in week one. Average PT varied significantly from week one to three in all the treatment except group 13. In week 1, average PT of rats exposed to 10 mg Cyclophosphamide and treated with 400 mg Xylopia aethiopica and 0.5 mg Melatonin alone was significantly different from rats exposed to 10 mg Cyclophosphamide.Average PT of rats treated with 400mg Xylopia aethiopica and 0.5mg Melatonin singly and in combination was not significantly different from the average PT of rats exposed to 30mg Cyclophosphamide. Similarly, average PT of rats treated with 400mg Xylopia aethiopica and 0.5 mg Melatonin was not significantly different from the average PT of rats exposed to 50mg Cyclophosphamide. By week 2, average PT of rats exposed to 10mg Cyclophosphamide and treated with 400 mg Xylopia aethiopica alone was significantly different from rats treated with 10 mg Cyclophosphamide alone. Average PT of rats exposed to 30 mg Cyclophosphamide and treated with 400mg Xylopia aethiopica and 0.5mg Melatonin singly and in combination was significantly higher than rats treated with 30mg Cyclophosphamide alone. Similarly, average PT of rats exposed to 50 mg Cyclophosphamide and treated with 400 mg Xylopia aethiopica and0.5mg melatonin singly and in combination was significantly different from rats treated with 50mg Cyclophosphamide alone. In week three, average PT of rats exposed to 10mg Cyclophosphamide treated with 400 mg Xylopia aethiopica and 0.5 mg Melatonin alone and in combination was significantly different from rats treated with 10mg Cyclophosphamide. In week one, two and three, there was significant increase in APTT in all the treatment groups compared with control except group 1 and 3 in week one. APTT varied significantly from week one to three in all the treatment except group 13. In week one and two, there was a dose dependent increase in APTT of rats treated with 10, 30 and 50 mg/kg of Cyclophosphamide. In week 1 and 2, treatment with 400mg Xylopia aethiopica alone, 0.5mg Melatonin alone and 400mg Xylopia aethiopica and 0.5mg Melatonin significantly increased the APTT of rats exposed to 10mg Cyclophosphamide. Treatment with 0.5mg of Melatonin and 0.5mg of Melatonin combined with 400mg Xylopia aethiopica decreases APTT of exposed rats compared with rats treated with 30mg Cyclophosphamide. 400mg Xylopia aethiopica alone significantly increased the APTT of rats exposed to 30mg Cyclophosphamide. APTT of rats treated with 400mg Xylopia aethiopica alone and 0.5mg Melatonin alone was significantly higher compared to expose to 50mgCcyclophophamide. In week three, treatment with 400mg Xylopia aethiopica and 0.5mg Melatonin significantly increased average APTT of rats exposed to 10mg Cyclophosphamide.

Keywords: Xylopia aethiopica, melatonin, platelets, coagulation profile, cyclophosphamide intoxicated wistar rats.


[Full Text Article]

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