EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF
PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH

( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

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Abstract

EFFECTS OF XYLOPIA AETHIOPICA EXTRACT AND MELATONIN ON PLATELETS AND COAGULATION PROFILE OF CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE INTOXICATED WISTAR RATS

Udokwu Euphemia Ifeoma, Okoroiwu I. L., Okolie N. J. C. Anonde Andrew Chekwube and Obeagu Emmanuel Ifeanyi*

ABSTRACT

The study was done to evaluate the effects of Xylopiaaethiopica and melatonin on platelets and coagulation profile in cyclophosphamide intoxicated adult wistar rats. Pods of Xylopiaaethiopica were purchased from Orie-Ugba vegetable market, Umuahia North Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria. One hundred and ninety five matured wistar albino rats were used for the studies. Results were expressed as means ± standard error of mean (SEM). Statistical analysis was done using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant differences were assessed at 95% level of significance between control and treated groups using Duncan and LSD (Post Hoc) tests. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Computer software package, SPSS version 21 was employedIn weeks one, two and three, there was significant decrease in platelet in all the treatment groups compared with control. Plateletresults varied significantly from week one to three in all the treatment groups except group 13. The results showed thatin weeks one and two, there was a dose dependent decrease in platelet count of rats treated with 10, 30 and 50 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide. Treatment with 400mg Xylopiaaethiopica alone and in combination with 0.5mg melatonin significantly increased the platelet counts of rats exposed to 10mg cyclophosphamide. Platelet counts of rats treated with 400mg Xylopiaaethiopica and 0.5mg melatonin weresignificantly higher than that of 400mg Xylopiaaethiopica alone in week two but not statistically different in week one. Similarly, treatment with 400mg Xylopiaaethiopica alone and in combination with 0.5mg melatonin significantly increased the platelet counts of rats exposed to 30mg and 50mg cyclophosphamide respectively.

Platelet counts of rats treated with 400mg Xylopiaaethiopica alone were significantly higher than that of 400mg Xylopiaaethiopica and 0.5mg melatonin in week two in both rats exposed to 30mg and 50mg cyclophosphamide respectively. The platelet counts of rats exposed to 30mg cyclophosphamide and treated with 400mg Xylopiaaethiopica alone were not statistically different from that of its combination with 0.5mg melatonin in week one. In week three, treatment with 400mg Xylopiaaethiopica alone and in combination with 0.5mg melatonin significantly increase the platelet counts of rats exposed to 10mg cyclophosphamide.

In weeks one, two and three, there were significant increases in PTresults in all the treatment groups compared with control. PTresults varied significantly from week one to three in all the treatment except group 13. In week one, PT of rats exposed to 10 mg cyclophosphamide and treated with 400 mg Xylopiaaethiopica alone and in combination with 0.5 mg melatonin were significantly different from that of rats exposed to 10 mg cyclophosphamide alone.PTresults of rats treated with 400mg Xylopiaaethiopica and 0.5mg melatonin was not significantly different from the PTresults of rats exposed to 10mg cyclophosphamide and treated with 400 mg Xylopiaaethiopica alone. Similarly, PT results of rats treated with 400mg Xylopiaaethiopica alone and in combination with 0.5 mg melatonin were significantly decreased compared to PTresults of rats exposed to 30mg and 50mg cyclophosphamide respectively. By week two, PT results of rats exposed to 10mg cyclophosphamide and treated with 400 mg Xylopiaaethiopica alone and in combination with 0.5 mg melatonin were significantly different from rats treated with 10 mg cyclophosphamide alone. PT results of rats exposed to 30 mg and 50mg cyclophosphamide respectively and treated with 400mg Xylopiaaethiopica singly and in combination were significantly higher than that of the rats treated with 30mg and 50mg cyclophosphamide singly. PTresults of rats exposed to 30 mg cyclophosphamide and treated with 400 mg Xylopiaaethiopica singly was significantly different from rats exposed to 30mg cyclophosphamide and treated with 400 mg Xylopiaaethiopica and 0.5 mg melatonin. In week three, PTresults of rats exposed to 10mg cyclophosphamide treated with 400 mg Xylopiaaethiopica alone and in combination with 0.5 mg melatonin were significantly different from rats treated with 10mg cyclophosphamide.

In weeks one, two and three, there was significant increase in APTT results in all the treatment groups compared with control. APTT resultsvaried significantly from week one to three in all the treatment except group 13.In weeks one and two, there was a dose dependent increase in APTT results of rats treated with 10, 30 and 50 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide. In weeks one, two and three, treatment with 400mg Xylopiaaethiopica alone and in combination with 0.5mg melatonin significantly decrease the APT resultsof rats exposed to 10mg cyclophosphamide. Treatment with 0.5mg of melatonin combined with 400mg Xylopiaaethiopica decreases APTT results of 10mg cyclophosphamide exposed rats compared with APTT results of rats treated with 400mg Xylopiaaethiopica alone in week one but not so in week three. Similarly treatment with 400mg Xylopiaaethiopica alone and in combination with 0.5mg melatonin significantly decrease the APTT results of rats exposed to 30mg and 50mg cyclophosphamide respectively. Treatment with 400mg Xylopiaaethiopica alone decreases APTT results of 30mg and 50mg cyclophosphamide exposed rats compared with APTT results of rats treated with 0.5mg of melatonin combined with 400mg Xylopiaaethiopica.

Keywords: Xylopiaaethiopica, melatonin, platelets, coagulation profile, cyclophosphamide intoxicatedwistar rats.


[Full Text Article]

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