ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY AND PREVALENCE OF TWO SEROTYPES OF SALMONELLA ENTERICA IN NEPAL (REVIEW)
Paudel K.R.*, Sharma M., Raghubansi B.R. and Jha R.K.
This study aimed to find out the difference in the prevalence of enteric fever caused by Salmonella Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, antimicrobial resistance pattern and multi drug resistant (MDR) isolates in Nepal. Cochrane library, MEDLINE/PUBMED Central, HINARI and Open Access journals were searched for Nepal, enteric fever, antimicrobial resistance, prescription pattern, typhoid and paratyphoid fever for the published data in the period of 2000 to 2012. Data were extracted in the data extraction form and were entered into Microsoft Excel 2007 and MetaAnlyst (Beta 3.13). Studies included in the present study consisted of more than 106,678 blood/bone marrow samples with 11,252 confirmed cases for enteric fever. Prevalence of S. Typhi was found to be 49.2% to 91.4% [risk ratio (RR) 0.003 to 0.737] whereas it was 8.6% to 50.8% for S. Paratyphi A. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern showed decreased susceptibility to flouroquinolones though the data were inconclusive. Prevalence of MDR isolates for S. Typhi was found to be 1.7% to 40.7% and 4.2% to 7% for S. Paratyphi A. Amoxicillin plus calvulanic acid, ofloxacin, ceftriaxone and cefotaxime may be more suitable for both serotypes of S. enterica in Nepal though comparative studies are not available.
Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, Enteric fever, Nepal.
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