MOLECULAR BASIS OF CERVICAL CANCER: A REVIEW
Shivani Singh, Dr. Sharique Ahmad* and Dr. A.N. Srivastava
Cervical cancer is sexually transmitted disease resulting from the high risk oncogene infection by Human papillomavirus of type 16 and 18. In cervical cancer cells the two viral oncogene E6 and E7 are found to be variably expressed. These genes modulate the molecule involved in innate and adaptive immunity development and also inhibit the major tumor suppressor gene p53 and pRb respectively. Molecular biology had become an encouraging structure for exploring the process of development and progression of cervical cancer. There are many fields of biomedical sciences which had investigated the oncogene and tumor suppressor gene expression from various fields one is genomics which determines the correlation between genetic expressions and pathological features by DNA Microarray technique. There are also some genetic changes which lead to cancer without any alteration in DNA sequence called Epigenetics. It comprises DNA methylation, hypermethylation and hypomethylation beside DNA there is also a major involvement of RNA in developing cancer both coding and non-coding RNA respectively. Majorly non-coding RNA is found to be upregulated in cervical cancer this whole mechanism is studied by the help of transcriptomics. Genes are translated into proteins and any alteration in genes will cause defective translation. Proteomics provides understanding of proteins in large scale and also deregulation in the proteins. Metabolomics is an analytical technique helpful for the patients of cervical cancer in predicting neoadjuvant therapy encompasses all treatments involved before primary treatment of cervical cancer. These defects in molecular mechanism ultimately cause effect in cell signaling and cell cycle. These molecular and biomedical studies could be helpful in understanding the mechanism associated with cervical cancer and also in diagnosis and prognosis of cervical cancer.
Keywords: Molecular biology, HPV, Pathogenesis, Transcriptomic, Proteomics, Metabolomics.
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