( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , Scope Database , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 6.222

 ICV - 79.57



Md. Zanzibul Tareq*, Abu Jafar Md. Tareq Morshed, Md. Mustafizur Rahman and Md. Rezwanul Hoque


Introduction: Chest tube removal is considered a painful technique, which may not respond well to palliative therapies. There are no standard procedures or guidelines to manage the pain associated with chest tube removal. This study aimed to examine the effects of cold presentation on pain reduction during and after chest tube removal. Objective: To assess the pain among post cardiac surgery patients during chest tube removal with and without cold presentation. Methods and Materials: In the present study Place of Department of cardiac surgery, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Shahbag, Dhaka, Bangladesh was my study area. The period of study were from September 2017 to August, 2019. The study sample was purposive sampling technique with random assignment of subjects into two groups: experimental group and control group. A study conducto assess the effectiveness of cold presentation on Pain & Anxiety during Chest Tube Removal (CTR) among post-operative cardiac surgery adult patients. Pre-test post-test control group experimental design was used. Post-operative cardiac surgery adult patient of the selected hospital of BSMMU were selected. Results: The sample size was 60 i.e. 30 in experimental group and 30 in control group. The control group received usual standard care during chest tube removal whereas experimental group received cold presentation with gel pack (Temp: 0-20C) after wrapping it with sterile gauze, around chest tube (5cms) for a period of 15 minutes before CTR. The tools used for the study were structured questionnaire to obtain demographic data, standardized Numerical Pain Intensity Scale (NPIS) scale to assess pain, C.D. Speilberger’s State Trait Anxiety inventory (STAI) scale to assess anxiety. The obtained data was analysed and interpreted in terms of the objectives of the study using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean post test pain scores with cold presentation (1.13 ± 1.31; 0.27 ± 0.44; 0.27 ± 0.44) at zero minute, 15 minute and 30 minute respectively were significantly (< 0.05) lower than the mean pre-test score of 6.10 ± 1.27 in the experimental group without cold presentation. In control group, pre test mean pain score was 6.57 ± 1.12 as compared to mean post test pain score of 8.57 ± 0.49; 8.73 ± 0.57; 8.63 ± 0.48 at zero minute, 15 minute and 30 minute respectively. It indicates that cold presentation was effective to reduce pain among post operative cardiac surgery patients while removing chest tube. To evaluate the effectiveness of cold presentation on anxiety related to chest tube removal, in experimental group the mean post cold presentation anxiety scores 41.93 ± 2.21 were significantly lower (< 0.05) than the mean anxiety score of 53.47 ± 1.84 before cold presentation. In addition, the mean anxiety score were 53.31 ± 1.81 before CRT and 57.87 ± 3.21 after CRT among post operative cardiac surgery patient in control group. Conclusion: It indicates that the cold presentation on chest tube removal was effective in reducing anxiety among post operative cardiac surgery patient. Cold presentation is simple, cheap, non pharmacological anxiety and pain management strategy ensuring good results.

Keywords: Cardiothoracic Patients, Cold Presentation, Chest Tube Removal (CTR), Pain Score, Anxiety Score.

[Full Text Article]




    AUGUST Issue has been successfully launched on 1 August 2022.

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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) Scope Database