PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACTS ON LEAD-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MALE WISTAR RATS: HISTOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL EVALUATION
Anyanwu Godson Emeka*, Kalu Ezinne Chidinma, Nto Johnson Nto and Nweze Sylvester Onuegbunam
This study investigated the protective effect of Anacardium occidentale (A.O) aqueous leaf extract on lead acetate-induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats. Thirty male rats were divided randomly into six equal groups. Group 1 (normal control), received 0.5ml normal saline; group 2 received 50mg/kg body weight (b.wt) lead acetate (Pb) for 28 days; groups 3 & 4 received A.O (150 and 300 mg/kg b.wt respectively) for first 14 days and Pb (50mg/kg b.wt) for the next 14 days; group 5 received concurrently (150 mg/kg b.wt A.O and 50 mg/kg b.wt Pb) for 28 days; group 6 received concurrently (300 mg/kg b.wt A.O and 50 mg/kg b.wt Pb) for a period 28 days. Animals were sacrificed and blood sample collected for assay of activity of serum liver enzymes; Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Result on histological analysis in lead only treated rats revealed vacuolar degeneration, necrosis of the hepatocytes and biochemical evaluation showed significant increases (p<0.05) in the activities of serum liver enzymes compared to normal control group indicative of hepatotoxicity. Pre and co-administrations of A.O at high and low doses to lead exposed rats, showed significant (p<0.05) reduction in serum levels of liver enzymes and cytoarchitectural preservation of liver tissue against lead intoxication. In conclusion, result obtained from this study, suggests that A.O possesses protective potentials against lead acetate-induced hepatotoxicity.
Keywords: Anacardium occidentale; Hepatotoxicity; Lead Acetate; Liver Enzymes.
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