REVIEW: TOXICITY OF THE MYCOTOXINS A POTENTIAL RISK FACTOR IN HEALTH
Krishnendhu*, Nasiya N., Jerrin Jose K., Dr. Shijikumar PS., Dr. Sirajudheen M. K. and Sherin A.
Mycotoxin are naturally occurring toxic metabolites of fungi, that may be present in food product. Mycotoxinss encompass a wide spectrum of different chemicals and they effect many target organ and system, notably the liver, kidney, nervous system, endocrine system and other immune system. They are frequently found in product such as nuts, corn, rice etc. Five most important naturally occurring mycotoxin in human food and animal feed are aflatoxin, ochratoxin, deoxyvalenol, zearalenone and fumonisin. Most countries have established maximum tolerated levels for total aflatoxins ranging from 4-20ng/g . conventional risk assessment has helped manage the risk form of mycotoxin in developed countries but has not help in developing countries. Various mycotoxins may occur simultaneously depending on the environment and substrate condition. Considering the co-incident production very likely, human are always exposure to mixture other than individual compound. Therefore, future risk assessment should be considering mixture toxicity data. This particularly true for ochratoxin A and ochratoxin B, Citrinin and occasionaly for patulin as they are all provided by a number of penicillium and aspergillus species. This review emphasis the different type of mycotoxins and their toxicological effect on health. The study on mycotoxin demonstrated their toxigenic, nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, immunosuppressive and mutagenic charasteristics.
Keywords: Mycotoxin, fungi, toxicological, health, aflatoxin, ochratoxin, fumonisin.
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