“INHIBITION OF CARBOHYDRATE DIGESTIVE ENZYMES BY SELECT PLANT EXTRACTS: ROLE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS?”
Renuka Premal Munshi*, Falguni Hitesh Panchal, Dipika Haresh Shinde
In the present study, 5 Indian medicinal plants i.e. Azadirachta indica, Momordica charantia, Gymnema sylvestre, Syzygium cumini and Trigonella foenum graecum were screened for their in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Aqueous, hydroalcoholic and alcoholic extracts of these plants were tested for qualitative phytochemical analysis using biochemical method. α- glucosidase and α- amylase inhibitory effect of the plant extracts was determined in-vitro using Elisa and spectrophotometric methods respectively. The phytochemicals analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides in all the plant extracts except for saponin which was seen only in Momordica charantia and Trigonella foenum graecum. Acarbose, a known inhibitor showed an IC50 value of 101.33μg/ml while the 3 different extracts of all the plants showed IC50 values ranging from 15.5 to 76.66μg/ml of α-glucosidase enzyme activity except for the alcoholic extract of Azadirachta indica whose IC50 value was higher than acarbose (214.66μg/ml). In case of α-amylase inhibitory activity, the IC50 of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Azadirachta indica & Momordica charantia, alcoholic and hydroalcoholic extracts of Gymnema sylvestre and aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Syzygium cumini showed IC50 value lower than the acarbose. Thus, amongst the 5 plants, Azadirachta indica, Momordica charantia, Gymnema sylvestre and Syzygium cumini exhibited potent inhibition of both α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme activity and thus may be considered for further studies to identify the active constituents responsible for this inhibitory activity followed by detailed in vivo studies to confirm these findings as per the drug development process to identify novel plant based drugs in the management of diabetes.
Keywords: Medicinal Plants, phytoconstituents, alpha amylase, alpha glucosidase, Diabetes mellitus.
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