PRODUCTION OF ANTIFUNGAL METABOLITES FROM VARIOUS ASPERGILLUS SPECIES: A STATE OF REVIEW
*Mumzath P., Shijikumar P. S. and Sirajudheen M. K.
Filamentous fungi in the Aspergillus section Nigri (the black aspergilli) represent some of the most widespread food and feed contaminants known but they are also some of the most important workhorses used by the biotechnological industry. The Nigri section consists of six commonly found species from which currently 145 different secondary metabolites have been isolated and detected. From a human and animal safety point of view, the mycotoxins ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2 are currently the most problematic compounds. Especially in foods and feeds such as coffee, nuts, dried fruits, and grape-based products where fumonisin-producing fusaria are not a problem, fumonisins pose a risk. Bioactives were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy technique, then the in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity of the methanolic extract was evaluated. 47 bioactive compounds were identified in the methanolic extract of Aspergillus terreus. Crude extract of Gramineae poaceae plant was very highly active. The results of antibacterial activity produced by Aspergillus terreus showed that the volatile compounds were highly effective to suppress the growth of Streptococcus pneumonia. Aspergillus terreus produce many important secondary metabolites with high biological activities. Based on the significance of employing bioactive compounds in pharmacy to produce drugs for the treatment of many diseases, the purification of compounds produced by Aspergillus terreus species can be useful.
Keywords: Production of antifungal matabolites, Aspergillus.
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