MORPHINE SULFATE EXTENDED RELEASE TABLETS A SEMINAR REPORT
*Hafsa Fatima, Syed Aietesam, M. PHARM, and Prof. Dr. Syedabdulazeez M. Pharm Ph.D
Tablets are intended for oral administration. Some tablets are swallowed whole or after being chewed, some are dissolved or dispersion in water before administration and some are retained in mouth where the active ingredient is liberated. Preparation intended for administration by other routes, for example, in the form of implants and passerines may also be presented in the form of tablets but because they may required special formulations, methods of manufacture or from of presentation appropriate to the particular use they may not comply with all the requirement of this monograph. Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate family which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals. It acts directly on the central nervous system (CNS) to decrease the feeling of pain.It can be taken for both acute pain and chronic pain It is frequently used for pain from myocardial infraction and during labor. Morphine was first isolated between 1803 and 1805 by friedrichserturner. This is generally believed to be the first isolation of an active ingredientsfrom a plant. merck began marketing it commercially in 1827. Morphine was more widely used after the invention of the hypodermic syringe in 1853–1855. Serturner originally named the substance morphiumafter the Greek god of dreams, morpheus, as it has a tendency to cause sleep. The primary source of morphine is isolation from poppy strawof the opium poppy. In 2013, approximately 523 tons of morphine were produced. Approximately 45 tons were used directly for pain, a four-fold increase over the last twenty years. Most use for this purpose was in the developed world. About 70 percent of morphine is used to make other opioids such as hydromorphone, oxomorphone and heroine It is a Schedule II drug in the united states, Class A in the united kingdom and Schedule I in canada. It is on the medicinal health of organisation list of essential medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Morphine is sold under many trade name. In 2016, it was the 158th most prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 3 million prescriptions.
Keywords: Friedrich serturner, merck, hypodermic syringe, Morpheus, hydromorphone, oxymorphone.
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