( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , Scope Database , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 6.222

 ICV - 79.57



Mong’are Samuel*, Ng’ang’a Zipporah, Ngumbi Philip and Ngure Peter


Sand flies are small haematophagous insects that transmit Leishmania parasites through the bite of infected female phlebotomine sand flies. Roots, leaves and seeds of Ricinus communis are extensively used in different ways especially in the treatment of rheumatic arthritis, paralysis, epilepsy and distension of the uterus. This study sought to determine the adulticidal effects of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extracts on Phlebotomus duboscqi in the laboratory. A comparative experimental design using extracts obtained from the leaf and bark of Ricinus communis plant was used. The study was carried out at the Kenya Medical Research Institute, Centre for Biotechnology Research and Development, Kenya. Aqueous, methanol and ethyl acetate extracts were prepared from Ricinus communis plant. Thirty-five day old adult Phlebotomus duboscqi flies were aspirated into plastic rearing jars partially filled with plaster of Paris and fitted with screen tops. They were fed on R. communis extract laced with 10% sucrose. Sand flies that fed on 10% sucrose solution soaked in cotton wool pads and placed onto the screen tops were used as controls. There was no significant difference when bark and leaf extracts were compared (P=0.061). R. communis extracts from Narok showed insecticidal effects against adults. At 48 hours post treatment, the LC50 was 121.15 μg/ml and 126.21 μg/ml for bark and leaf extracts respectively. P. duboscqi adults were found to be highly susceptible to methanol extracts. Therefore, R. communis extracts have insecticidal effects on adult P. duboscqi; hence R. communis should be used against sand flies and Leishmania in situ.

Keywords: P. duboscqi, Ricinus communis, adulticidal, mortality.

[Full Text Article]




    JANUARY issue has been successfully launched on 1 JANUARY 2023.

  • New Issue Published

    Its Our pleasure to inform you that, EJPMR 1 January 2023 Issue has been Published, Kindly check it on

  • EJPMR New Impact Factor

    Its our Pleasure to Inform you that EJPMR Impact Factor has been increased from  5.804 to 6.222, due to high quality Publication at International Level

  • Index Copernicus Value

    EJPMR Received Index Copernicus Value 79.57, due to High Quality Publication in EJPMR at International Level

  • Journal web site support Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Opera, Saffari for easy download of article without any trouble.


  • Article Invited for Publication

    Article are invited for publication in EJPMR Coming Issue

Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) Scope Database