HUMAN CORONAVIRUS: A REVIEW ON VIRUS CELL BIOLOGY AND INTERACTION TO HOST CELL
Gaurav D. Borse*, Balaji S. Somwanshi and Rushikesh B. Shinde
Corona viruses are enveloped positive-stranded RNA and are characterized by club-like spikes that project from their surface, a remarkably large RNA genome, and a unique replications style in the cytoplasm. Deliver their nucleocapsid into the host cell, they depend on the fusion of their envelope with the host cell membrane. The spike glycoprotein mediates virus entry and is a prime determinant of cell tropism and pathogenic. In most, corona viruses, S is slashed by a host cell spring-like protease into two separate polypeptides noted S1 and S2. S1 facilitates virus infection by binding to host receptors. It comprises two domains, the N-terminal domain and the C-terminal RBD domain that directly interacts with host receptors while S2 forms the stalk of the spike molecule which fuses the virus into host cell. After all its fusion, undergo replication/transcription of virion. It causes a variety of diseases in mammals and bird according to their classification. Here we provide a brief introduction of cell biology of corona viruses and host cell interaction process.
Keywords: corona virus; viral protein; viral entry; fusion and replication/transcription.
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