MALARIA SUSCEPTIBILITY AMONG INDIGENOUS BAKA PYGMIES AND BANTU IN THE UPPER NYONG DIVISION, CAMEROON
Gangueu Djape Clotilde Diane*, Yondo Jeannette, Noumedem Anangmo Christelle Nadia, Nkouayep Vanessa Rosine and Mpoame Mbida
Promiscuity and extreme poverty may have led Baka pygmies to experience higher mortality rate due to malaria parasite than their Bantus neighbors. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the malaria prevalence among Baka pygmies, semi nomadic autochthones of the Congo Basin forest and their Bantus neighbors, sedentary of the Upper Nyong Division, East Cameroon. Blood was collected by venous swab and analyzed through thick blood smear. For each participant, gender, age, level of education, ethnic group, matrimonial status, occupation, house building materials and the used of ITN (insecticide treated net) were recorded. Data were analyzed with SPSS 22.0 and chi-square test at 95% served to compare proportion. P. falciparum was the only malaria parasite found. No significant difference was found between the malaria prevalence in Bantu and in Baka. Bantu females were more infected (49.6%) while in Baka, the prevalence was higher in males (55%). Infants of less than 2 years were more infected in Baka pygmies (60.9%) while Bantu teenagers were the most infected (50.3%). Participants who had never attended school were the most infected (58.9%). Single participants were significantly more infected (55 %) than married one. Baka house workers were more infected while in Bantu, traders were the most prevalent (64.5%). People living inside plank houses were more infected than others (50%). People sleeping under ITN were globally the most infected (47.8%). The malaria prevalence was globally more influenced by gender, age and the level of education and not by ethnic differences.
Keywords: Malaria, Prevalence, Ethnicity, Baka, Bantu, Cameroon.
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