INVIVO AND EXVIVO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF PERSEA AMERICANA EXTRACTS ON ALBINO WISTAR RATS
Iloh E. S., C. S. Nworu, *M. A. Omoirri, N. U. Madubogwu, B. C. Ugwu
For many years now, plants and plant products have been used in traditional medicine for treatment of infectious diseases. This study investigated the anti-oxidant activity of Persia americana extract under invivo and ex vivo conditions. The antioxidant activity of the leaf extract/fractions of P. americana was carried out in vivo using the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydraxyl (DPPH) assay. A total of sixty five (65) healthy adult Albino rats of either sexes, weighing between 200 - 250 g were procured and housed in the animal house of the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra state, Nigeria. They were maintained under standard environmental conditions with free access to standard diet and water ad libitum. They were then grouped into 13 groups of five rats per group. For the aqueous extract unit, group 1 received 10ml/kg of distilled water, while group 2 received 50mg/kg of diclofenac. Groups 3, 4 and 5 received 50mg/kg, 150mg/kg and 400mg/kg body weights of crude extract respectively. Fractions extract unit received 10ml/kg of distilled water (Group 1, control) and 50mg/kg of diclofenac (Group 2). Groups 3 and 4 were then given 150mg/kg of ethyl acetate fraction and 400mg/kg of ethyl acetate fraction respectively, while groups 5, 6, 7 and 8 got 150mg/kg, 400mg/kg of n-hexane fraction and 150mg/kg of butanol fractions respectively. Phytochemical evaluation of the plant confirmed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, glycosides, carbohydrates, proteins, and coumarins. In the antioxidant assay, the crude extract and fractions of the P. americana leaves were administered to adult albino rats at variable doses. Various degrees of antioxidant activities at the concentration range of 31.25 -500 µg/mL were observed, with inhibition ranging from 4.2 – 41.8%. The crude extract showed best antioxidant activity compared with the fractions with IC50 = 587 µg/mL. Thus, the results of this study investigated the antioxidant properties of P. americana leaves extract, providing scientific information that validates the ethnobotanical use of P. americana leaves in disease management. Findings of this study also reveal that potentially P. americana could be a source of pharmacologically active compounds of pharmaceutical importance.
Keywords: Persia Americana, Antioxidant, Phytochemicals, fractions.
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