REVIEW ON BHASMA GUNA OF MAHARASA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO RASA RATNA SAMUCCHAYA
Dr. Sunil Mandal*, Dr. Gazala Husain and Dr. Govinda Sharma K.
Introduction: Rasashastra is a specialized branch of Ayurveda dealing mainly with drugs that are of mineral origin, metals, gemstones, etc. The classification of rasa dravya is done on the basis of its properties and use of it in the processing of mercury. Maharasa is one among the important group of minerals which have been recognized as they are useful for the potentiation of the properties of Parada. Bhasma, which are unique Ayurvedic metallic/ minerals preparations, are prepared by subjecting them to trituration with herbal juices or decoction and exposed for certain quantum of heat termed as puta to procure the calyx of the minerals or metals. These bhasma are utilized in the treatment of variety of diseases and are said to be potent enough even to manage the ashadhya (incurable) diseases. Materials and methods: Literary search on the text books of Rasashastra namely Rasatarangini, Rasaratnasamucchaya, Ayurveda Prakasha, Rasaprakashsudhakara and Rasarnava. The indication of the bhasma from all the treatises to understand the mode of action based on the properties of the drug was carried out. Observation and Results: In Rasa Ratna Samucchaya there are eight Maharasa namely, Abhraka, Vaikranta, Makshika, Vimala, Shilajitu, Sasyaka, Chapala and Rasaka. In Rasatarangini, seven maharasa are mentioned that are same as told in Rasaratna samucchaya except vimala. In Rasaprakashsudhakara only seven maharasa are described omitting Chapala. In Rasarnavam only six maharasa are mentioned except abhraka and vaikranta. In Ayurveda Prakash, only parada is mentioned as maharasa and all other rasadravyas like abhraka, makshika, etc. in total eight dravyas are termed as uparasa. The properties of the maharasa quoted in the treatise have similar properties and indications. Discussion: The drugs exhibit their actions either based on the virtue of their rasa (taste) or by their virya (potency) or by their guna (quality) or by their vipaka (specific change after digestion) or by virtue of their prabhava (unexplainable action) or it could be a combined effect of any of these. Conclusion: All Bhasma have some common properties like rasayana, yogavahi, etc. Rasayana indicates immune-modulation and anti-aging quality, and yogavahi indicates ability of drug to carry and targeted drug delivery by bhasmas. Properly prepared bhasmas is nontoxic and must be readily absorbable, adaptable and assimiable in the body. Shighravyapti indicates that after marana, bhasma becomes easily absorbable and assimiable in the body and spreads quickly in the body. Under agnideepana, bhasma increases metabolism at cellular level and acts as catalyst. These attributes of bhasmas are comparable with the action of nanoparticles in the body. The probable mode of action and the use of the bhasma in various disorders can be understood based on the attributes of the drug.
Keywords: Maharasa, Bhasma, Rasayana, Rasashastra.
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