RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS AND NANOTHERAPEUTICS
Mahalakshmi AM, Dr. K. Santhi* and Ramesh Nidavani
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune, symmetrical polyarticular disease that affects primarily the diarthrodial joints, which are characterized by chronic inflammation of the synovial joints. Inflammation is the net result of a cascade of highly regulated events propagated upon stimulation, and is the major process through which the body repairs tissue damage and defends itself against foreign materials. Acute inflammation is typically caused by an external chemical, mechanical, or pathogenic influence; while chronic inflammation requires no external stimulus and can cause a range of painful and debilitating symptoms. Histological changes occur with abnormal cell distribution in targeted tissues and indicate localized population of macrophages and lymphocytes, then fibrosis and necrosis. Nanoparticles sized between 1 and 100 nm are already in use including cosmetics, food industry, medicine, electronics, and others. Exposure to nanomaterials induces cell dysfunctions at various levels, such as cell death by oxidative stress, DNA damage, and protein damage. Cell damage produces free radicals including reactive oxygen species (ROSs) and reactive nitrogen species (RNSs). It was also reported that generation of various inflammatory mediators, depends on type of nanoparticles. Present review highlights on the role of various nanoparticles on inflammation including, silica, iron oxide, cerium oxide, yttrium oxide, zinc oxide, silver, nickel oxide and Synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles.
Keywords: Inflammation, nanoparticles, proinflammatory mediators, cytokines, rheumatoid arthritis, silica nanoparticles.
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