KOHL AN EYE COSMETIC PRODUCT: LEAD EXPOSURE AND RISK MANAGEMENT. REVIEW
Brahim Mojemmi*, Yassir El Alaoui, Badr Adouani, Rachid Nejjari, Mohammed O. B. Idrissi, M. Bouatia
Kohl (surma) is a traditional cosmetic product for the eyes applied using a wooden or plastic stick. It is a powdery substance, usually of a dark color. It is widely used by women in different region of the world (Asia and North Africa). Kohl is traditionally prepared at home or industrially under different names and a variety of packaging. The chemical composition of kohl is different to from one product to another, but the lead is the most element find in the form of galena (lead sulfide). multiple of analytical methods are used to measure the content of lead and other element in kohl such Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEP) and Raman spectroscopy. Many studies correlate lead poisoning with use of Kohl. To reduce the lead content in cosmetics the regulatory agencies in some countries have established prerogatives for the import and use of cosmetics based on lead. The aim of this article is to carry out a literature review on established studies to list the different types of kohl and their composition and analytical techniques used for the control, and also report the declared cases of kohl poisoning.
Keywords: Kohl, lead, poisoning, surma.
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