EFFECT OF BONE TURNOVER MARKERS IN DIABETIC RETINOPATHY
Sabah S., Khan S., Waris A.* and Siddiqui S. S.
Diabetic retinopathy is the most frequent microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Diabetic retinopathy has a complex process and various bone turnover markers play a key role in pathogenesis and progression of diabetic retinopathy. Previous studies have shown that bone turnover markers such as serum calcium, vitamin D, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase have significant effect on microvascular changes in diabetic patients. Further studies should be done to evaluate the level of various bone turnover markers in diabetic retinopathy and critically appraise the level and quality of existing studies.
Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy, calcium, phosphate, vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, microvascular complications.
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