A REVIEW ON APPLICATION OF RADIOISOTOPES IN CANCER THERAPY
Dhiman Kapil*, Sharma Jyoti*, Bhardwaj Shubham and Kumar Damit
Radiopharmaceutical basically deals with the application of radioactive nuclides as a therapeutic agent in different diseases treatment and somewhere also as sterilising agent. The therapeutic action depends on the radiation potential of nuclides which is utilised to terminate the cancerous cell by either implanting nuclides close to the tumour or by selective delivery of nuclides to the malignant cells using immunobiology. Radionuclides are outlined to be more lethal towards malignant cells in comparison to normal cells, and this stimulated the researchers to use radionuclides in cancer treatment. ―TELETHERAPY‖ one of the method for treating deep settled tumours is through the application of a direct powerful narrow beam of gamma rays [ϒ], emitted by an artificial isotope, into the tumour. Cobalt-60 is most commonly used isotope for teletherapy. In “BRACHYTHERAPY” compact source of radiation is implanted for treatment of superficial tumours. The recent advancement in drug delivery stimulated the focus toward the application of monoclonal antibodies (mAb‘s) for selective targeting of the malignant cells. Previously the mAb‘s used were derived from mouse which is recently seen to form HAMA (Human Anti-Mouse Antibody). Genetically engineered and humanised mAb‘s appear to be one of the most promising strategies to avoid HAMA formation. This review include the detailed study and the recent application of radioisotopes like 90Y, 212Bi, 213Bi,123 I & 124 I in treatment of cancer through radio immunotherapy.
Keywords: Radiopharmaceuticals, Radionuclides, HAMA (Human Anti-Mouse Antibody), Radio immunotherapy, mAb‘s.
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