CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF TEN ESSENTIAL OILS FROM CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM LINN AND THEIR TOXICITY AGAINST ARTEMIA SALINA
Emmanuel O. Ojah, Dorcas. O. Moronkola*, Riccardo Petrelli, Franks Kamgang Nzekoue, Loredana Cappellacci, Cristiano Giordani, Marcel Jaspars and Jioji N. Tabudravu
Essential oils from ten different parts of Calophyllum inophyllum were analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) to study their chemical compositions. The yields were between 0.219 and 0.506 %. A total of 102 compounds were identified in the ten C. inophyllum essential oils, which are mostly monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and their oxygenated derivatives. The numbers and percentages of identified compounds varied in the different parts of the plant: leaf (71, 54.94%), leaf stalk (22, 79.55%), flower (25, 51.24%), seed (25, 89.39%), seed-coat (69, 73.80%) fruit-pulp (15, 46.10%), stem wood (55, 59.40%), stem bark (9, 69.38%) root wood (51, 58.73%), and root bark (24, 74.66%). High content of cymene, terpinene, and limonene in the oils may be responsible for the vast ethno-medicinal applications of the plant. Toxicity experiments show that the oils were fairly toxic. Each part after 24 hours of exposure against Artemia salina gave the following LC50 values in μg/mL: leaf (68.8740 μg/mL), leaf-stalk (102.5692 μg/mL), flower (114.4410 μg/mL), seed (132.2324 μg/mL), seed coat (137.1206 μg/mL), fruit-pulp (135.0350 μg/mL) stem wood (126.1410 μg/mL), stem bark (149.7237 μg/mL), root wood (110.6539 μg/mL) and root bark (110.6539 μg/mL). The chemical compositions and toxicity levels of these ten Calophyllum inophyllum essential oils are reported for the first time in literature.
Keywords: Calophyllum inophyllum, Guttiferae, Essential oils (EO), GC-MS, Artemia salina, Toxicity.
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