EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF
PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH

( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

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 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 6.222

 ICV - 79.57

Abstract

INCIDENCE OF SURGICAL SITE INFECTIONS, THEIR ETIOLOGY, ASSOCIATED ANTIMICROBIAL USE AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE IN NORTHERN INDIA.

Asfia Sultan*, Meher Rizvi, Fatima Khan, Sana Ali, Indu Shukla, Abida Khatoon

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Surgical site infections are third most commonly reported nosocomial infection. Reported surgical site infection rate in India has varied from a low of 2.5% to a high of 41.9% over a period of decades. Material and Methods: This study was done on patients who underwent major operative procedures between 21 Jan to 26 August 2011. Total 2536 cases were operated, of these 228 (8.99%) cases developed SSI. Ceftriaxone, Amikacin and Metronidazole were most commonly used antimicrobial agents during preoperative and postoperative periods. Wound status was assessed according to Southampton Scoring. Samples were collected by proper aseptic techniques. Quality of specimen was assessed by Q-score. Culture and sensitivity was done as per standard microbiological procedures. ESBL, AmpC, MBL, MRSA, HLAR were detected. Results: Of 228 cases, 60% cases were contaminated, 3.6% dirty and 36.4% clean wounds respectively. 72.7% cases had superficial SSI while 34.5% had deep SSI. According to Southampton scoring, 56.4% were classified under grade IV (purulent discharge along wound), 34.5% cases grade V (wound dehiscence), 7.2% grade III (prolonged serous discharge) while 2% were grade II (tender localised swelling). Polymicrobial etiology was observed in 17 and monobacterial in 211 cases. The main pathogens being gram-positive bacteria (51.7%). S. aureus (46.5%) being the most common organism followed by E. coli (32.0%), Citrobacter spp (9.6%). Among patients falling under Southampton grade IV & V, Citrobacter sp (30.0%) dominated followed by E. coli (18.1%), S. aureus (16.3%). Among these 30% were ESBL and 64.7% were AmpC producers while 39.6% were MRSA strains. No MBLs were detected. Conclusion: Coryneforms exhibited maximum resistance with majority sensitive to only vancomycin. Maximum drug resistance was observed in Grades IV and V SSI.

Keywords: Multidrug resistance, surgical site infection, southampton scoring.


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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI )