EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF
PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH

( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

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 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 7.065

 ICV - 79.57

Abstract

RISK OF DEVELOPING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE AND ASSOCIATED DEATH RISK IN SOME PATIENTS AND HEALTHY SUBJECTS: A COURSE FOR PHARMACISTS’ INTERVENTION PROGRAMMES

*John David Ohieku and A. C. Oparah

ABSTRACT

Background: Risk estimates in cardiovascular diseases are desired to identify high risk individuals that require primary or secondary preventive measures. Objectives: To identify high risk individuals that may develop cardiovascular events, assess the variation in the risk predictive values of various age strata; and to compare the risk values between patients and healthy volunteers. Methods: The determinant risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) such as blood pressure, fasting blood cholesterol as well as glucose concentrations were determined and values obtained were used to predict 5 and 10 years of individual risks through Global Risk Assessment Measurement. Information involving the family and smoking histories as well as the demographic data of subjects were obtained through questionnaire. Chi square tests were used to determine significance difference between two variables and ANOVA Post Hoc analyses were performed to compare specific significant risk differences between age strata. Results: The risk strata for healthy subjects are 14.0%, 19.8%, 38.4%, 26.7% and 1.1% respectively for optimal risk, non-optimal risk, elevated risk, one major risk, and two and above major risks. The values for patients’ group are 2.0%, 16.3%, 12.2%, 38.8% and 32.7% respectively. The 5-years risk for developing cardiovascular disease events between healthy male subjects and male patients are significantly different (P<0.001) from each other. Significant difference among the two subjects was also observed in subjects in the female category (P<0.001). Similarly, the 10-year risk of developing cardiovascular disease also vary significantly (P=0.001) between healthy subjects and patients for male subjects but not for female subjects (P=0.167). The 10-years risk of death from cardiovascular disease indicated 14.3% of subjects in their sixth decades of life as having high risks and no other age stratum is at risk. Conclusion: Many individuals with abnormal levels of BP, cholesterol and blood sugar levels have varying levels of risks. Patients have higher risk of developing CVD events than healthy subjects. The risk of death from the two conditions is also higher among the patients’ group than healthy subjects. These risks are also higher in both patients and healthy subjects who are above 50 years of age.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, death risk, healthy subjects, 10-years predictive risk.


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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) Scope Database Academia