PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS, ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY DETERMINATION OF PIPER NIGRUM
Jocelyn Choo Wei Ching, Neeraj Paliwal, Nabila Perveen and Naeem Hasan Khan*
To evaluate the phytochemical constituents, antibacterial and antioxidant scavenging activity of ethanolic Soxhlet and maceration extract of Piper nigrum fruit. In the present research, Soxhlet extraction and maceration extraction of Piper nigrum were carried out by using 95% ethanol as solvent. Phytochemical analysis of the important chemical constituents were carried out for both the ethanolic extracts. Antibacterial activity of Piper nigrum extract was determined by using well diffusion method and the zone of inhibition was measured. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were carried out subsequently. Antioxidant activity of Piper nigrum was determined by using DPPH radical scavenging assay and the IC50 values were determined. Total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as mg Gallic acid per gram of plant material. For phytochemical analysis, both extracts showed positive results in all the tests except in the test for saponin, anthraquinone, glycoside and flavonoid. For the well diffusion test, positive results were seen in all the bacterial strains except for Escherichia coli. The MIC and MBC could not be determined accurately as the concentration used was too low. For antioxidant analysis, DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic contents showed a positive correlation whereby the activity increases with the concentration. It is concluded that Piper nigrum exhibits antibacterial and antioxidant properties. It is concluded that Piper nigrum exhibits antibacterial and antioxidant properties.
Keywords: Piper nigrum, maceration, Soxhelt, antibacterial, antioxidant.
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