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An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

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European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , Scope Database , Academia , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 7.065

 ICV - 79.57



Hae-Jin Jeong, Byeong-Jo Kim and Tae-Heon Kim*



This study aimed to establish an inflammatory model by injecting carrageenan into masseter muscle and gastrocnemius muscle in rats, and then verify the anti-inflammatory effects of both Hippophae rhamnoides and Boswellia extracts. As experimental animals, male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 7-8 weeks (250-300 g) were used. The inflammation of masseter muscle and gastrocnemius was induced by injecting 0.3 mL of 2% carrageenan diluted with normal saline solution into them. Hippophae rhamnoides and Boswellia extracts were orally administered into the rats, 30 minutes before the inflammatory induction. In order to verify changes in tissues, masseter muscle and gastrocnemius muscle were extracted, 4 hours after the injection of the carrageenan. The tissues were photographed by using an optical microscope, after slicing and staining of them, and the area of cells was measured by using Image J (1.52a, USA). For the quantitative evaluation of measured cell changes, SPSS statistic ver. 22 was used to conduct a statistical analysis. The results of this experiment show the significant dose-dependent increase in the area of cells of most rats in the extract administration group, compared to the carrageenan group. The sizes of muscle cells in masseter muscle, especially Bos30 group and Bos15+Vit150 group, were significantly increased, depending on the concentrations of both vitamin tree and Boswellia extracts. For the gastrocnemius muscle, anti-inflammatory effects were induced in the extract administration group, compared to the control group, but the effects were not significant. From the results, the effects of Hippophae rhamnoides and Boswellia on the inflammatory regulation of masseter muscle and gastrocnemius could be proved, suggesting that natural substances can be effective drug for the inflammatory regulation of muscle.

Keywords: Hippophae rhamnoides, Boswellia, Inflammation, Masseter Muscle, Gastrocnemius.

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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) Scope Database Academia