MOLECULAR BIOLOGICAL AND GENETIC MECHANISMS CARCINOGENESIS OF COLORECTAL CANCER (REVIEW)
Ten Y. V.*
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a malignancy that begins in the colon or rectum. Colon cancer (CC) and rectal cancer (RC) are often grouped together because they have many common features. CC is one of the most common types of malignant neoplasms (MN) in the world (Jemal et al., 2018; http://www.cancer.org). According to the international Agency for research on cancer (IARC), more than a million patients with newly diagnosed colon cancer have been registered in the world since 2016. According to Professor S. Winawer (USA), CRC will take the first place in the world in the next 15-20 years in the future, given the current trend of increasing morbidity in various regions of the globe.[3,11-13] Statistics show that more than 50,000 new cases of CRC disease are diagnosed annually in Russia. There is a certain discrepancy in the statistics: in the US the incidence rate is 33.2; in Sweden - 17.8; in the UK - 25.8; in Japan - 15.7; in Senegal - 2.5; in Russia - 12.6; in Uzbekistan - 4.1. As can be seen from the presented, there is a certain territorial variability of indicators, which may be associated with various endogenous and exogenous factors that contribute to the emergence of the disease. In Uzbekistan, problem of CRC also tends to increase, given the annual increase in the number of patients and the increase in morbidity and mortality. According to State Statistics Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Cancer registry the cancer research center of the MOH of RUz, the incidence rate of CRC 2016 was - 4,1, rectum cancer (RC) is 2.0, while the mortality rate is 1.5 per 100 thousand population, the ratio of mortality to incidence is 0.75. In the General structure of morbidity in Uzbekistan among all malignant neoplasms (MN) CRC takes the 4th place. The one-year mortality rate is 31.2% for the colon and 28.6% for the rectum. In the first year after the diagnosis of metastatic CRC die more 37тыс. patients [http://globacan.iarc/fr//]. High mortality in this category of patients is primarily due to the biological characteristics of the malignant tumor (active mutations, high proliferative activity, tendency to synchronous metastasis, hidden clinical course, etc.), and the lack of programs for early detection of tumors of this localization. In 30% of primary patients at the time of diagnosis, distant metastases are detected and in 50-60% of patients subjected to radical surgical treatment for early stages, during the first year progression of the disease is revealed [Moiseenko V. M., Orlova R. V., 2000; Tyulyandin S. A., 2018]. As can be seen, the relevance of scientific research in this direction is beyond doubt and requires the introduction of new methods of study in terms of molecular biology and genetics, as is now increasingly confirmed and the importance of such studies are in the specificity and sensitivity in the early diagnosis of CRC.
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