HYPOGLYCEMIC ORAL EFFECTIVE DOSE OF METHANOL ROOT EXTRACT OF TACAZZEA APICULATA (OLIV) ON ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC MICE AND ITS SAFETY POTENTIALS ON SUB-CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION
Ikechukwu Sonné Mbagwu*, Daniel Lotanna Ajaghaku, Amara Anwuchaepe Ajaghaku, Fidelia Ogochukwu Offu, Chibueze Jeremiah Ike and Cyril Onyeka Ogbue
Management of diabetes mellitus with traditional insulin therapy or synthetic oral hypoglycemic drugs is associated with various side effects and has failed to provide the ideal clinical outcomes in many diabetic patients. This study evaluated the hypoglycermic oral effective dose of root extract of Tacazzea apiculata and its safety potentials. The methanol root extract was screened for various phytoconstituents. Diabetes was induced in albino mice by a single intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg alloxan monohydrate. Diabetic animals having blood glucose > 160 mg/kg were grouped into 6 groups of 5 animals each. Groups 1 – 4 received graded doses of the extract (50 – 400 mg/kg) for 7 days while groups 5 and 6 served as control and received 100 mg/kg metformin and 5 ml/kg distilled water respectively. The median effective dose (ED50) was determined using percentage blood glucose reduction. The median lethal dose (LD50) was determined across oral doses of 10 – 5000 mg/kg while the sub-chronic toxicity determined at 100 and 200 mg/kg oral doses for 90 days. The extract was found to contain abundant saponins. The ED50 of the extract was established to be 180.31 mg/kg and the LD50 above 5000 mg/kg. Sub-chronic administration of the extract produced non-significant (p>0.05) reduction in liver function enzymes, blood urea nitrogen and hematological indices. However, serum creatinine concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) reduced at both dose treatments. The root extract of T. apiculata showed a wide margin between its effective and toxic doses making it a good choice in the management of diabetes mellitus.
Keywords: Tacazzea apiculata, Diabetes mellitus, Hypoglycemic, Phytoconstituents, Alloxan, Toxicity.
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