ANTIMICROBIAL AND HEALTH POTENTIALS OF CLAY
Umeaku C. N.*, Otuadinma R. N., Ochiabuto O. M. T. B., Onwuasoanya U. F. and Obeagu E. I.
The study involves a cross sectional study to access the antimicrobial properties of clay samples from Anambra State on 4 kinds of clay samples bought from 3 different markets in Anambra State. Awka (Eke Awka Market), Nnewi (Nkwo Nnewi market) and Onitsha (Onitsha main market). A total 24kinds of clay samples consisting 6 white, pink, red and grey each were used. Chemical qualitative analysis for heavy metals of clay was conducted using Varian AA240 Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and the clay metals for antimicrobial property was accessed using a methods known as flame photometric with atomic Absorption spectrophotomeric (Varian AA240 Atomic Absorption spectrophometer) while nitrate was determined using APHA method with PD 303 UV spectrophotometer in all cases. Antimicrobial susceptibility test of the clay lysate were performed using Agar disc diffusion. The clay lysate were serially diluted using the following dilution patterns. 100mg, 50mg, 25mg, 12.5mg and 6.5mg, each of these diluted clay lysate 0.1ml each was pipetted on the perfoilated disc (Whatman No. 1 filter paper) and allowed to air dried, the control drug used are Erythromycine, Ampliclox, Aplicillin and Ciprofloxacin. These control drugs were prepared according to these milligrams (0.0003 μg, 0.009μg, 0.004 μg and 0.003μg). The drug powder were dissolved with sterile distilled water and aliquoted in 5ml of volume and frozen at 20C. 0.1ml of prepared antibiotics solutionwere pipetted on a sterile perfoilated disc inorder to get the drug sensitivity disc as a control and the clay sensitivity disc respectively against standard test organism (E. coli, Streptococcus pyogens, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aerigunosa) for susceptibility testing.MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) and MBC (Minimum Bacterial Concentration) of clay with and without antibacterial properties were accessed using Standard Micro-well plate dilution and surface streaking techniques. The Mean SD MIC and MBC areRed clay MIC meanSD 0.200.00 while MCB meanSD 0.300.46. White clay MIC 0.200.00 while MCB 0.060.16, Gray clay MIC 0.200.00 while MBC 0.100.20, Pink Clay MIC 0.160.08 while MBC 0.420.43, P-value 0.000* respectively. MIC concentration increased when compared to the clay concentration and was statistically significant. The MBC concentration increased also when compared to clay concentration and p-value was statistically significant.From the susceptibility test result revealed that Streptococcus pyogen showed a high susceptibility on grey clay 23(52%) in 100mg with highest at Nnewi town followed by Onitsha and Awka having the same percentage 13(.8%) and was susceptible to control drug (Erythromycin 31(77.5%) and the lowest susceptibility on clay was 5(9.1%) in 6.25mg respectively.
Keywords: Antimicrobial, clay, health potentials.
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