PHARMACEUTICAL CARE AND COMMUNITY PHARMACY PRACTICE IN NIGERIA; GRAPPLING WITH THE FRONTIER
Ogbonna Brian O.*, Ejim Chukwuka E, Ikebudu Chiadichiem C, Uzodinma Samuel U, Orji Chima E
Public health services have evolved from the era of disease control characterized by sanitary reforms, water supply and control of physical environment from 1880- 1920; to health promotion from 1920- 1960, when attention was geared towards maternal and child health, school health services, personal health, rehabilitative health, mental health and industrial health services. This led to the era of social engineering from 1960- 1980 when it became obvious that public health alone could not tackle chronic diseases. It gave way to consideration of risk factors as determinants of chronic diseases. Health for all era evolved from 1981- 2000 and initiated the popular Millennium Development Goals (MDG) which continued from 2000 to 2015. The MDG era was characterized by serious grass root mobilizations in Nigeria powered by the primary health care (PHC) system, and has culminated into the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), which commenced in the year 2015. Pharmaceutical care and community pharmacy practice in Nigeria have not evolved rapidly enough in line with the public health trends. This article described the extent of pharmaceutical care activities in community pharmacies in Nigeria to generate information for improved practice. Many non-professionals are involved in community pharmacy practice. Pharmaceutical care is still at teething stage and largely untapped in Nigeria. Community pharmacies have great potentials in rendering public health services through ethical practices, policy reengineering, and enforcement of practice standards. The enormous potentials of pharmaceutical care and community pharmacy practice can boost public health services and improve health outcomes at the grassroots.
Keywords: Pharmaceutical care, community pharmacy, public health, grassroots, Sustainable Development Goals, Nigeria.
[Full Text Article]