( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 6.222

 ICV - 79.57



Shahanaz M.* and Sreeja P. A.


Objective: To assess the prevalence and various risk factors for COPD, to categorize the COPD patients using dyspnea scale and to identify the various cardiac complications among COPD exacerbative patients.Also to assess the relationship of FEV1 with cardiac complication in patients with COPD exacerbation. Method: Subjects agedbetween 30 to 65 yrs (n=420) were included in the analysis. The clinical examination data’s and patient history was collected in a predesigned data entry form. The percentage was calculated by using MS excel. Result: Out of 420 COPD patients, about 49.5%(n=99) were without CVDs and about 50.5%(n=101) were with CVDs. Male gender(66%) is more susceptible to COPD than female gender(34%). Age group between 61-65(62%) and 56-60 (29%) are more prone to COPD.Results shows that, cigarette smoking is one of the major risk factor in both subject categories, it is of about 69.7% and 52.5% respectively. Other major risk factors are smoke exposure (16.2% & 31.6% respectively).Patients with COPD had significantly higher incidence of grade-2(29.3%) and grade-3(40.4%).Also COPD patients with CVD had significantly higher incidence of Mmrc dyspnea scale 4 (49.5%) and 5 (50.4%). In COPD patients with CVD, most commonly symptom assosiated CVD is systemic hypertension(HTN), 41.50%. Followed by coronary artery disease(CAD) 25.70% patients. Other assosiated CVDs were pulmonary arterial hypertension(PAH) (20.70%), corpulmonale(6.93%), cardiac arrhythmias(2.97%) and atherosclerosis(1.98%). Conclusion: These findings support the conclusion that the risk of COPD and assosiated cardiac comorbidites was more in elder patients above age 50 and it was prominent in males comparing to females. COPD and cardiac comorbidites was more prevalent among smokers. Most of the COPD patients without CVD belongs to Mmrcdyspnea scale 2 and 3 i.e; mild to moderate where as COPD patients with CVD belongs to grade 4 and 5. From this study it is found that the risk of cardiac complication is high in COPD patients having lower FEV1. In this particular study the common cardiac comorbidity associated CVD is systemic hypertension (HTN). Followed by coronary artery disease and the other associated CVDs were pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), corpulmonale, cardiac arrhythmias and atherosclerosis. The study concluded that patients with COPD with dyspnea scale grading IV and V and FEV1 ˂ 50 were more prone to show CVD complication and thus dyspnea scale and FEV1 can be used as predictor for such COPD patients. This will help the physician to be aware while treating patients with COPD. By understanding the association between the two disease entities may enable improved CVD risk prediction in patients with COPD by identifying those individuals at higher risk of CVD morbidity and mortality.

Keywords: Cardiovascular Disease(CVD), Forced expiratory volume(FEV1), Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease(COPD), Coronary Artery Disease(CAD), Congestive Cardiac Failure(CCF), Systemic hypertension(HTN), Pulmonary artery hypertension(PAH), Peripheral vascular di

[Full Text Article]



  • New Issue Published

    Its Our pleasure to inform you that, EJPMR 1 November 2021 Issue has been Published, Kindly check it on


    NOVEMBER Issue has been successfully launched on 1 November 2021.

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    Its our Pleasure to Inform you that EJPMR Impact Factor has been increased from  5.804 to 6.222, due to high quality Publication at International Level

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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI )